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1. The definition of drilling
Chinese name: Drilling
English name: drilling
Other names: drilling
Definition: The method in which the drilling tool moves relative to the workpiece and makes an axial feed movement to machine holes on the workpiece.
Drilling is one of the most basic hole processing methods. Drilling is often performed on drilling machines and lathes, but also on boring and milling machines. Commonly used drilling machines are bench drilling machines, vertical drilling machines and radial drilling machines.
2. The characteristics of drilling
Compared with turning the outer circle, drilling is much more difficult to work on the machined surface, which causes some special problems. For example, the rigidity and strength of the drill bit, chip holding and chip removal, guiding, cooling and lubrication, etc., can be summarized as follows:
1. Low accuracy
The drilling accuracy is low, the surface is rougher, the general processing accuracy is below IT10, the surface roughness Ra value is greater than 12.5mm, and the production efficiency is also low. Therefore, drilling is mainly used for roughing or pre-processing. cnc customized machined parts Competitive price.
2. The bit is easy to lead deviation
Leading deviation: refers to the enlargement of the hole diameter, the out-of-round hole or the skewed axis of the hole caused by the bending of the drill bit during processing, as shown in Figure 2-6.
Reason: Due to the inaccurate centering of the chisel edge of the drill, the rigidity and guiding effect of the drill are poor, and the drill is easy to shift and bend when cutting. cnc customized machined parts Competitive price.
3. Difficult chip removal
The chips of the drilling hole are wide, and the size of the chip flute is restricted. When it flows out, it rubs against the hole wall violently, and the hole is forced to roll into a spiral shape. Make the chip and the hole wall have greater friction, squeeze, roughen and scratch the processed surface, reducing the surface quality. Chips may even block in the chip pockets, jam or break the drill, and the tool wears quickly. cnc customized machined parts Competitive price.
In order to improve the chip removal conditions, a chip dividing groove can be ground on the drill to divide the wide chips into narrow strips to facilitate chip removal. When drilling deep holes, suitable deep hole drills should be used for processing.
4. High cutting temperature
Since drilling is a semi-enclosed cutting, the main cutting edge has a large negative rake angle near the core and the chisel edge. The heat generated during drilling is absorbed by the workpiece a lot, and a large amount of high temperature chips cannot Discharge in time, cutting fluid is difficult to inject into the cutting area, cutting heat is not easy to spread. The friction between the chips, the tool and the workpiece is very high, so the cutting temperature is high, the tool wear is large, and the drilling amount and the increase in productivity are limited.
3. the application of drilling
In single-piece and small batch production, small holes (D<13 mm) on small and medium-sized workpieces are usually processed by bench drilling machines, and larger holes (D<50 mm) are usually processed by vertical drilling machines;
The holes on the large and medium-sized workpieces should be processed by a radial drilling machine, and the holes on the rotary workpiece should be processed on a lathe.
In batch and mass production, in order to ensure processing accuracy, improve production efficiency and reduce processing costs, drilling dies, multi-axis drills or modular machine tools are widely used for hole processing.
Small and medium diameter holes (D<50mm) with high precision and small roughness often need to be expanded and reamed for semi-finishing and finishing after drilling. cnc customized machined parts Competitive price.
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